CNC machining vibration is also called chatter,which is the phenomenon of tool vibration. Mainly refers to the unnecessary vibration generated during CNC machining processes such as controlled milling, turning, and drilling, which causes fluctuations on the surface of the processed parts. This occurs when the workpiece and cutting tool vibrate at different frequencies. There are many reasons for knife vibration. Some common main reasons are as follows:

  1. Tool instability: Too long tool overhang, inappropriate tool material, tool wear and other factors may lead to tool instability, causing tool vibration.
  2. Improper setting of cutting parameters: If the setting of cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed speed, and cutting depth exceeds the tolerance range of the machine tool and tool, it will easily lead to tool vibration.
  3. Excessive cutting force: If the cutting force is too large and exceeds the load-bearing capacity of the tool, it will cause vibration of the tool.
  4. The workpiece is not firmly fixed: If the workpiece is not fixed well or is unstable, it will cause vibration of the workpiece during cutting, which will affect the stability of the tool.
  5. Insufficient machine tool rigidity: Insufficient machine tool rigidity means that the machine tool will bend or vibrate to a certain extent during the cutting process, which will directly affect the stability of the tool.
  6. Improper use of clamps: The workpiece is too thin, resulting in insufficient holding force, and a clamp with poor rigidity is used.

In order to avoid knife vibration, the following measures can be taken:

  1. Improve the fixation of the workpiece to ensure that the workpiece will not loosen or vibrate during the cutting process.
  2. Select appropriate cutting tools and cutting parameters to ensure that the cutting tools can withstand cutting forces and avoid overloading.
  3. Try the reverse milling method and tighten the feed mechanism of the machine tool, such as adjusting the feed screw.
  4. Make sure the machine tool has sufficient rigidity. Consider upgrading the machine tool or performing maintenance to improve the stability of the machine tool.
  5. Evaluate the direction of the cutting force, provide sufficient support or improve the fixture, reduce the cutting force by reducing the depth of cut, select a sparsely spaced milling cutter with sharper cutting force, and select a small tool tip arc radius and For the geometry of small parallel land, choose fine-grained, thin-coated inserts to avoid processing without insufficient support for the workpiece.
  6. Consider using square shoulder milling cutters with positive rake angle geometries and 90-degree leading angles. Choose inserts with L geometries to reduce axial cutting forces, check tool wear and toolholder runout, and improve tool clamping. Condition.
  7. Use a sparse-tooth milling cutter with minimum overhang and unequal pitch to balance radial and axial cutting forces. Use a milling cutter with a large tip arc radius or a round insert to increase the feed per tooth. Use a light cutting insert geometry. Reduce the radial depth of cut, only use up milling during fine milling, use extended adapters with anti-vibration functions, and for solid carbide end mills and replaceable head mills, try to use fewer teeth or rotating A milling cutter with a larger angle.
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